The conflict between North and South came right to the streets of New York. Local factories produced food, clothing, and other necessities for the army. Racial antagonism divided the city as it did the country, unleashing the 1863 draft riots, the worst civil unrest in the nation's history. A measure of resolution came when black regiments from New York were allowed to join the effort to end slavery. (See Gallery 5.)

After the war, New York was a city changed by immigration, prosperity, and the legal freedoms granted to black people by the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments. Nevertheless, deep-seated racial prejudice remained. (See Gallery 6.)

"Bombardment of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, 12th and 13th of April, 1861." (New York: Currier & Ives, 1861?) Courtesy the Library of Congress.