Class Room of the Colored Orphan Asylum. Collection New-York Historical Society.

Albion, Robert Greenhalgh. The Rise of New York Port, 1815-1860. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1939.

Anbinder, Tyler. Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City Neighborhood that Invented Tap Dance, Stole Elections, and Became the World's Most Notorious Slum. New York, London: Free Press, 2001.

Bean, Annemarie, James V. Hatch, and Brooks McNamara, eds. Inside the Minstrel Mask: Readings in Nineteenth-Century Blackface Minstrelsy. Hanover, N.H.: Wesleyan Press, 1996.

Beckert, Sven. The Monied Metropolis: New York City and the Consolidation of the American Bourgeoisie, 1850-1896. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Berlin, Ira, and Leslie M. Harris, eds. Slavery in New York. New York: The New Press, in conjunction with the New-York Historical Society, 2005.

Bernstein, Iver. The New York City Draft Riots: Their Significance for American Society and Politics in the Age of the Civil War. New York: Oxford Press, 1984.

Blackett, R. J. M. Beating Against the Barriers: The Lives of Six Nineteenth-Century Afro-Americans. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986, 1989.

Bolden, Tonya. Maritcha: A Nineteenth-Century American Girl. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2005.

Bordewich, Fergus M. Bound for Canaan: The Underground Railroad and the War for the Soul of America. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.

Burrows, Edwin G., and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford Press, 1999.

Cook, Adrian. The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1974.

Ernst, Robert. Immigrant Life in New York City, 1825-1863. New York: King's Crown Press, 1949.

Foner, Philip S., Business and Slavery: The New York Merchants and the Irrepressible Conflict. Chapel Hill: of North Carolina Press, 1941.

Franklin, John Hope. A Southern Odyssey: Travelers in the Antebellum North. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Press, 1976.

Harris, Leslie M. In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Hodges, Graham Russell. Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863. Chapel Hill: of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Homberger, Eric. The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of Nearly 400 Years of New York City's History. New York: Henry Holt, 1994, 2005.

Horton, James Oliver and Lois E. Horton. In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community and Protest among Northern Free Blacks, 1700-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Horton, James Oliver and Lois E. Horton. Slavery and the Making of America. New York: Oxford Press, 2004.

Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. The Encyclopedia of New York City. New Haven: Yale Press, 1995.

Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself. Edited by L. Maria Child. Boston: privately, 1860, 1862.

Ripley, C. Peter., ed. The Black Abolitionist Papers, Volume II,, 1830-1865, and Volume III, The United States, 1830-1846. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Schecter, Barnet. The Devil's Own Work: The Civil War Draft Riots and the Fight to Reconstruct America. New York: Walker and Company, 2005.

Spann, Edward K. Gotham at War: New York City, 1860-1865. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2002.

Stauffer, John. The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race. Cambridge: Harvard Press, 2001.

Swift, David E. Black Prophets of Justice: Activist Clergy Before the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.